HERNIA AND HIDROCELE
Inguinal hernia: increased inguinal volume left and the scrotum looks larger
Umbilical hernia with protruding navel and redundant skin.
Inguinal hernia in children is generally indirect, that is, it is due to the persistence of the vaginal peritoneal duct. This duct in boys allows the descent of the testicle (and in girls of a ligament) from the abdominal cavity to the scrotum or labia majora during gestational development. When this duct is not closed, a communication persists between the abdomen and the inguinal area that allows the exit of abdominal contents, constituting the hernia. Surgery should be performed due to the risk that a bowel loop becomes blocked and becomes necrotic.
An abdominal wall defect may persist at the site of the umbilical cord. It usually closes in the first years of life. If they do not close at 4 years or are very large at 3 years, it is advisable to close them with surgery.
Thin persistent vaginal peritoneal ducts (read inguinal hernia) may allow fluid to pass from the abdominal cavity to the scrotum (communicating hydrocele) or to the inguinal area (cord or Nuck's cyst). Non-communicating hydroceles exist due to inflammation of the scrotal structures. Some hydrocele only resolves with surgery.
Cord Cyst; fluid in the groin
Hydrocele: fluid in the scrotum surrounding the testicle.
Femoral, incisional, or femoral hernia.
White line, supraumbilical or epigastric hernia.
These are other defects of the abdominal wall in children that are seen less frequently, but they also need surgery to resolve.
Groin Cord Cyst
Similar to the hydrocele, there may be passage of peritoneal fluid or from the abdomen to the inguinal or scrotum area and form a liquid cyst in the area. It is resolved with surgery in order to resect the cyst and facilitate the proper development of adjacent structures,
Epigastric, white line, or supraumbilical hernia
There is a small defect in the abdominal wall above the navel, which allows the omentum (intra-abdominal fat tissue) to protruded. It can cause pain and feel a protrusion in the area. They don't close over time so they need surgery before they get complicated.